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Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Baba Bathra
a chase1 of Leviathan; for it is said: Canst thou draw out Leviathan with a fish hook? Or press down his tongue with a cord?2 And if the Holy One, blessed be He, will not help him, he will be unable to prevail over him; for it is said: He only that made him can make His sword to approach unto him.3
When R. Dimi came he said in the name of R. Johanan: When Leviathan is hungry he emits [fiery] breath from his mouth and causes all the waters of the deep to boil; for it is said: He maketh the deep to boil like a pot.4 And if he were not to put his head into the Garden of Eden, no creature could stand his [foul] odour;5 for it is said: He maketh the sea like a spiced6 broth.7 When he is thirsty he makes numerous furrows in the sea; for it is said: He maketh a path to shine after him.8 R. Aha b. Jacob said; The deep does not return to its strength until [after] seventy years; for it is said: One thinks the deep to be hoary,9 and hoary age is not [attained at] less than seventy [years].10
Rabbah said in the name of R. Johanan: The Holy One, blessed be He, will in time to come make a banquet for the righteous from the flesh of Leviathan; for it is said: Companions will make a banquet of it.11 Kerah12 must mean a banquet; for it is said: And he prepared for them a great banquet13 and they ate and drank.14 Companions must mean scholars,15 for it is said: Thou that dwellest in the gardens, the companions hearken for thy voice; cause me to hear it.16 The rest [of Leviathan] will be distributed and sold out in the markets of Jerusalem; for it is said: They will part him among the Kena'anim,17 and Kena'anim must mean merchants, for it is said: As for kena'an18 the balances of deceit are in his hand, he loveth to oppress.19 And if you wish you may infer it from the following: Whose merchants are princes, whose traffickers20 are the honourable of the earth.21
Rabbah in the name of R. Johanan further stated: The Holy One, blessed be He, will in time to come make a tabernacle for the righteous from the skin of Leviathan; for it is said: Canst thou fill tabernacles with his skin.22 If a man is worthy, a tabernacle is made for him; if he is not worthy [of this] a [mere] covering is made for him, for it is said: And his head with a fish covering.23 If a man is [sufficiently] worthy a covering is made for him; if he is not worthy [even of this], a necklace is made for him, for it is said: And necklaces about thy neck.24 If he is worthy [of it] a necklace is made for him; if he is not worthy [even of this] an amulet is made for him; as it is said: And thou wilt bind him for thy maidens.25 The rest [of Leviathan] will be spread by the Holy One, blessed be He, upon the walls of Jerusalem, and its splendour will shine from one end of the world to the other; as it is said: And nations shall walk at thy light, and kings at the brightness of thy rising.26
[It is written]: And I will make thy pinnacles of kadkod27 — R. Samuel b. Nahmani said: There is a dispute [as to the meaning of kadkod] between two angels in heaven, Gabriel and Michael. Others say: [The dispute is between] two Amoraim in the West.28 And who are they? — Judah and Hezekiah the sons of R. Hiyya. One says: [Kadkod means] onyx; and the other says: Jasper. The Holy One, blessed be He, said unto them: Let it be as this one [says] and as that one.29
And thy gates of carbuncles30 [is to be understood] as R. Johanan [explained] when he [once] sat and gave an exposition: The Holy One, blessed be He, will in time to come bring precious stones and pearls which are thirty [cubits] by thirty and will cut out from them [openings]31 ten [cubits] by twenty, and will set them up in the gates of Jerusalem. A certain student sneered at him: [Jewels] of the size of a dove's egg are not to be found; are [jewels] of such a size to be found? After a time, his ship sailed out to sea [where] he saw ministering angels engaged32 in cutting precious stones and pearls which were thirty [cubits] by thirty and on which were engravings of ten [cubits] by twenty. He said unto them: 'For whom are these?' They replied that the Holy One, blessed be He, would in time to come set them up in the gates of Jerusalem. [When] he came [again] before R. Johanan he said unto him: 'Expound, O my master; it is becoming for you to expound; as you said, so have I seen.' He replied unto him: 'Raca, had you not seen, would not you have believed? You are [then] sneering at the words of the Sages!' He set his eyes on him and [the student] turned into a heap of bones.33
An objection was raised: And I will lead you komamiyuth,34 R. Meir says: [it means] two hundred cubits; twice the height of Adam.35 R. Judah says: A hundred cubits; corresponding to the [height of the] temple36 and its walls. For it is said: We whose sons are as plants grown up in their youth; whose daughters are as corner-pillars carved after the fashion of the Temple.37 R. Johanan speaks only of the ventilation windows.
Rabbah in the name of R. Johanan further stated: The Holy One, blessed be He, will make seven canopies for every righteous man; for it is said: And the Lord will create over the whole habitation of Mount Zion, and over her assemblies, a cloud of smoke by day, and the shining of a flaming fire by night; for over all the glory shall be a canopy.38 This teaches that the Holy One, blessed be He, will make for everyone a canopy corresponding to his rank.39 Why is smoke required in a canopy? — R. Hanina said: Because whosoever is niggardly towards the scholars in this world will have his eyes filled with smoke in the world to come. Why is fire required in a canopy? — R. Hanina said: This teaches that each one will be burned by reason of [his envy of the superior] canopy of his friend. Alas, for such shame! Alas, for such reproach!
In a similar category is the following: And thou shalt put of thy honour upon him,40 but not all thy honour. The elders of that generation said: The countenance of Moses was like that of the sun; the countenance of Joshua was like that of the moon.41 Alas, for such shame! Alas for such reproach!42
R. Hama b. Hanina said: The Holy One, blessed be He, made ten canopies for Adam in the garden of Eden; for it is said: Thou wast in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone [was thy covering, the cornelian, the topaz and the emerald, the beryl, the onyx and the jasper, the sapphire, the carbuncle and the emerald and gold]43 etc. Mar Zutra says: Eleven; for it is said: Every precious stone.44 R. Johanan said: The least of all [these] was gold, since it is mentioned last. What is [implied] by the work of thy timbrels and holes?45 — Rab Judah said in the name of Rab: The Holy One, blessed be He, said to Hiram, the King of Tyre. '[At the creation] I looked upon thee, [observing thy future arrogance]46 and created [therefore] the excretory organs of man'.47 Others say: Thus said [the Holy One, blessed be He].' I looked upon thee
Baba Bathra 75b
and decreed the penalty of death over Adam'.1 What is implied by, and over her assemblies?2 — Rabbah said in the name of R. Johanan: Jerusalem of the world to come will not be like Jerusalem of the present world. [To] Jerusalem of the present world, anyone who wishes goes up, but to that of the world to come only those invited3 will go.
Rabbah in the name of R. Johanan further stated: The righteous will in time to come be called by the name of the Holy One, blessed be He; for it is said: Every one that is called by My name, and whom I have created for My glory. I have formed him, yea, I have made him.4
R. Samuel b. Nahmani said in the name of R. Johanan: Three were called by the name of the Holy One; blessed be He, and they are the following: The righteous, the Messiah and Jerusalem. [This may be inferred as regards] the righteous [from] what has just been said. [As regards] the Messiah — it is written: And this is the name whereby he shall be called, The Lord is our righteousness.5 [As regards] Jerusalem — it is written: It6 shall be eighteen thousand reeds round about; and the name of the city from that day shall be 'the Lord is there.'7 Do not read, 'there' but 'its name'.8
R. Eleazar said: There will come a time when 'Holy' will be said before the righteous as it is said before the Holy One, blessed be He;9 for it is said: And it shall come to pass, that he that is left in Zion, and he that remaineth in Jerusalem, 'shall be called Holy.10
Rabbah in the name of R. Johanan further stated: The Holy One, blessed be He, will in time to come lift up Jerusalem three parasangs high; for it is said: And she shall be lifted up, and be settled in her place.11 'In her place' means 'like her place'.12 Whence is it proved that the space it occupied was three parasangs in extent? — Rabbah said: A certain old man told me, 'I saw ancient13 Jerusalem and it occupied14 [an area of] three parasangs'. And lest you should think the ascent will be painful, it is expressly stated: Who are these that fly as a cloud, and as the doves to their cotes.15 R. Papa said: Hence it may be inferred that a cloud rises three parasangs.nbsp;
R. Hanina b. papa said: The Holy One, blessed be He, wished to give to Jerusalem a [definite] size; for it is said: Then said I 'Whither goest thou?' And he said unto me: 'To measure Jerusalem, to see what is the breadth thereof and what is the length thereof'.16 The ministering angels said before the Holy One, blessed be He, 'Lord of the Universe, many towns for the nations of the earth hast thou created in thy world, and thou didst not fix the measurement of their length or the measurement of their breadth, wilt thou fix a measurement for Jerusalem in the midst of which is Thy Name, Thy sanctuary and the righteous?' Thereupon, [an angel] said unto him: 'Run speak to this young man, saying: Jerusalem shall be inhabited without walls, for the multitude of men and cattle therein'.17
Resh Lakish said: The Holy One, blessed be He, will in time to come add to Jerusalem a thousand18 gardens, a thousand18 towers, a thousand18 palaces and a thousand18 mansions;19 and each [of these] will be as big as Sepphoris in its prosperity. It has been taught: R. Jose said: I saw Sepphoris in its prosperity, and it contained a hundred and eighty thousand markets for pudding20 dealers.
[It is written]: And the side chambers were one over another, three and thirty times.21 What is meant by three and thirty times? — R. Levi in the name of R. Papi in the name of R. Joshua of Siknin22 said: If [in time to come] there will be three Jerusalems,23 each [building] will contain thirty dwellings one over the other; if there will be thirty Jerusalems, each [building] will contain three dwellings one over the other.
It has been stated: [In the case of a ship] — Rab said: [The buyer acquires legal ownership] as soon as he pulled [it],24 however slightly; whereas Samuel said: He cannot become its legal owner until he has pulled its full length.25
Must it be said that [they26 differ on the same principles] as the [following] Tannaim? [For we have learned:]27 How is [the acquisition] by mesirah?28 If [the buyer]29 seizes [the animal] by its hoof, hair, the saddle or the saddle-bag upon it, the bit30 in its mouth, or the bell on its neck, he acquires legal possession. How is [the acquisition] by meshikah?31 If he calls it and it comes, or if he strikes it with a stick and it runs before him, he acquires legal ownership as soon as it has moved a foreleg and a hind leg.32 R. Ahi, some say R. Aha, said: [Not] until it has moved the full length of its body.33
Must it be said that Rab follows34 the first Tanna and Samuel follows R. Aha?35 — Rab can tell you: What I have said [is valid] even according to R. Aha. For his statement ['until it moved etc.'] is applicable only to an animal,36 which, though it has moved a foreleg and a hind leg, remains in the same place;37 but [in the case of] a ship, when a small part of it moves the whole moves. And Samuel can say: What I have said [is valid] even according to the first Tanna. For his statement ['as soon as it has moved, etc.'] is applicable only to an animal;36 for, since one foreleg and one hind leg have been moved, the other legs are on the point of being moved38 but [in the case of a ship] if he pulls it all, he does [acquire possession]; otherwise, [he does] not.39
Must it be said that [they40 differ on the same principles] as the following Tannaim? For it has been taught: A ship is legally acquired by meshikah. R. Nathan said: A ship and letters41 are legally acquired by meshikah42
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