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Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Berakoth
But if you say that they used to say, 'With abounding love', how can you infer that one blessing is not indispensable for the recital of the other? Perhaps the reason why they did not say, Who formest the light' was because the time for it had not yet arrived,1 but when the time for it did arrive, they used to say it! And if this statement was made only as an inference, what does it matter? — If it was made only as an inference [I might refute it as follows]: In fact, they said, 'With abounding love', and when the time came for 'Who formest the light', they said that too. What then is the meaning of 'One blessing is not indispensable for the other'? The order of the blessings is not indispensable.
'They recited the Ten Commandments, the Shema', the sections "And it shall come to pass if ye diligently hearken", and "And the Lord said", "True and firm", the 'Abodah, and the priestly benediction'. Rab Judah said in the name of Samuel: Outside the Temple also people wanted to do the same,2 but they were stopped on account of the insinuations of the Minim.3 Similarly it has been taught: R. Nathan says, They sought to do the same outside the Temple,4 but it had long been abolished on account of the insinuations of the Minim. Rabbah b. Bar Hanah5 had an idea of instituting this in Sura,6 but R. Hisda said to him, It had long been abolished on account of the insinuations of the Minim. Amemar had an idea of instituting it in Nehardea, but R. Ashi said to him, It had long been abolished on account of the insinuations of the Minim.
'On Sabbath they said an additional blessing on account of the outgoing watch'. What was this benediction? — R. Helbo said: The outgoing watch said to the incoming one, May He who has caused His name to dwell in this house cause to dwell among you love and brotherhood and peace and friendship.
WHERE THEY ORDAINED THAT A LONG BENEDICTION SHOULD BE SAID. There is no question that where a man took up a cup of wine thinking that it was beer and commenced [with the intention to say the benediction] for beer but finished with that of wine, he has fulfilled his obligation. For even had he said the benediction, 'By whose word all things exist',7 he would have fulfilled his duty, as we have learnt: 'In the case of all of them,8 if he says, "By whose word all things exist", he has performed his obligation'.9 But where he took up a cup of beer thinking it was wine and began [with the intention to say the benediction] for wine and finished with the benediction for beer, the question arises, do we judge his benediction according to its beginning or according to its ending? — Come and hear: 'In the morning, if one commenced with [the intention to say] "Who formest light" and finished with "Who bringest on the evening twilight",10 he has not performed his obligation; if he commences [with the intention to say] "Who bringest on the evening twilight" and finished with "Who formest the light", he has performed his obligation. In the evening, if one commenced [with the intention to say] "Who bringest on the evening twilight" and finished with "Who formest the light", he has not performed his obligation; if he begins with [the intention to say] "Who formest the light" and closes with "Who bringest on the evening twilight", he has performed his obligation. The principle is that the final form is decisive'. — It is different there because [at the end] he says, 'Blessed art Thou who formest the luminaries'.11 This would be a good argument for Rab who said that any blessing that does not contain the mention of God's name is no blessing.12 But if we accept the view of R. Johanan who said that any blessing that does not contain a mention of the divine kingship is no blessing, what can be said?13 Rather [we must reply]: Since Rabbah b. 'Ulla has said: So as to mention the distinctive quality of the day in the night-time and the distinctive feature of the night in the day-time,14 [we may assume that] when he said a blessing [with the divine name] and with the kingship15 in the beginning, he refers to both of them.16
Come and hear from the concluding clause: 'The principle is that the final form is decisive'. What further case is included by the words 'the principle is'? Is it not the one we have mentioned?17 — No; it is to include bread and dates. How are we to understand this? Shall I say that he ate bread thinking that he was eating dates,18 and commenced [with the intention of saying the benediction] for dates and finished [with the blessing for] bread? This is just the same thing! — No, this is required [for the case where] he ate dates thinking that he was eating bread, and he began with [the intention to say the blessing] for bread and finished with that of dates. In this case he has fulfilled his obligation; for even if he had concluded with the blessing for bread, he would also have fulfilled it. What is the reason? — Because dates also give sustenance.19
Raba b. Hinena the elder said in the name of Rab: If one omits to say True and firm'20 in the morning and 'True and trustworthy'21 in the evening, he has not performed his obligation; for it is said, To declare Thy lovingkindness in the morning and Thy faithfulness in the night seasons.22
Raba b. Hinena the elder also said in the name of Rab: In saying the Tefillah, when one bows,23 one should bow at [the word] 'Blessed' and when returning to the upright position one should return at [the mention of] the Divine Name. Samuel said: What is Rab's reason for this? — Because it is written: The Lord raiseth up them that are bowed down.24 An objection was raised from the verse, And was bowed before My name?25 — Is it written, 'At My name'? It is written, 'Before My Name'.26 Samuel said to Hiyya the son of Rab: O, Son of the Law, come and I will tell you a fine saying enunciated by your father.27 Thus said your father: When one bows, one should bow at 'Blessed', and when returning to the upright position, one should return at [the mention of] the Divine Name.
Raba b. Hinena the elder also said in the name of Rab: Throughout the year one says in the Tefillah, 'The holy God', and 'King who lovest righteousness and judgment',3 except during the ten days between New Year and the Day of Atonement, when he says, 'The holy King' and 'The King of judgment'. R. Eleazar says: Even during these days, if he said, 'The holy God', he has performed his obligation, since it says, But the Lord of Hosts is exalted through justice, and the holy God is sanctified through righteousness:4 When is the Lord of Hosts exalted through justice? In these ten days from New Year to the Day of Atonement; and none-the-less it says, 'the holy God'. What do we decide?5 — R. Joseph said: 'The holy God' and 'The King who loves righteousness and judgment'; Rabbah said: 'The holy King' and 'The King of judgment'. The law is as laid down by Rabbah.
Raba b. Hinena the elder said further in the name of Rab: If one is in a position to pray on behalf of his fellow and does not do so, he is called a sinner, as it says, Moreover as for me, far be it from me that I should sin against the Lord in ceasing to pray for you.6 Raba said: If [his fellow] is a scholar, he must pray for him even to the point of making himself ill. What is the ground for this? Shall I say, because it is written, There is none of you that is sick for me or discloseth unto me?7 Perhaps the case of a king is different. It is in fact derived from here: But as for me, when they8 were sick, my clothing was sackcloth, I afflicted my soul with fasting.9
Raba b. Hinena the elder further said in the name of Rab: If one commits a sin and is ashamed of it,10 all his sins are forgiven him, as it says, That thou mayest remember and be confounded, and never open thy mouth any more, because of thy shame; when I have forgiven thee all that thou hast done, saith the Lord God.11 Perhaps with a whole congregation the case is different? — Rather [we derive it] from here: And Samuel said to Saul, Why hast thou disquieted me to bring me up? And Saul answered, I am sore distressed; for the Philistines make war against me, and God is departed from me, and answereth me no more, neither by prophets nor by dreams; therefore I called thee that thou mayest make known unto me what I shall do.12 But he does not mention the Urim and Thummim13 because he had killed all [the people of] Nob, the city of the priests.14 And how do we know that Heaven had forgiven him? — Because it says, And Samuel said … Tomorrow shalt thou and thy sons be with me,15 and R. Johanan said: 'With me means, in my compartment [in Paradise]. The Rabbis say [we learn it] from here: We will hang them up unto the Lord in Gibeah of Saul, the chosen of the Lord.16 A divine voice came forth and proclaimed: The chosen of the Lord.17
R. Abbahu b. Zutrathi said in the name of R. Judah b. Zebida: They wanted to include the section of Balak18 in the Shema', but they did not do so because it would have meant too great a burden for the congregation.19 Why [did they want to insert it]? — Because it contains the words, God who brought them forth out of Egypt.20 Then let us say the section of usury21 or of weights22 in which the going forth from Egypt is mentioned? — Rather, said R. Jose b. Abin, [the reason is] because it contains the verse, He couched, he lay down as a lion, and as a lioness; who shall rouse him up?23 Let us then say this one verse and no more? — We have a tradition that every section which our master, Moses, has divided off we may divide off, but that which our master, Moses, has not divided off, we may not divide off. Why did they include the section of fringes?24 — R. Judah b. Habiba said: Because it makes reference to five25 things — the precept of fringes, the exodus from Egypt, the yoke of the commandments, [a warning against] the opinions of the Minim, and the hankering after sexual immorality and the hankering after idolatry. The first three we grant you are obvious: the yoke of the commandments, as it is written: That ye may look upon it and remember all the commandments of the Lord;26 the fringes, as it is written: That they make for themselves fringes;27 the exodus from Egypt, as it is written: Who brought you out of the land of Egypt.28 But where do we find [warnings against] the opinions of the heretics, and the hankering after immorality and idolatry? — It has been taught: After your own heart:29 this refers to heresy; and so it says, The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God.30 After your own eyes:29 this refers to the hankering after immorality; and so it says, And Samson said to his father, Get her for me, for she is pleasing in my eyes.31 After which ye use to go astray:29 this refers to the hankering after idolatry; and so it says, And they went astray after the Baalim.32
MISHNAH. THE EXODUS FROM EGYPT IS TO BE MENTIONED [IN THE SHEMA'] AT NIGHT-TIME. SAID R. ELEAZAR B. AZARIAH: BEHOLD I AM ABOUT33 SEVENTY YEARS OLD,33 AND I HAVE NEVER BEEN WORTHY TO [FIND A REASON] WHY THE EXODUS FROM EGYPT SHOULD BE MENTIONED AT NIGHTTIME UNTIL BEN ZOMA EXPOUNDED IT: FOR IT SAYS: THAT THOU MAYEST REMEMBER THE DAY WHEN THOU CAMEST FORTH OUT OF THE LAND OF EGYPT ALL THE DAYS OF THY LIFE.34 [HAD THE TEXT SAID,] 'THE DAYS OF THY LIFE' IT WOULD HAVE MEANT [ONLY] THE DAYS; BUT 'ALL THE DAYS OF THY LIFE' INCLUDES THE NIGHTS AS WELL. THE SAGES, HOWEVER, SAY: 'THE DAYS OF THY LIFE REFERS TO THIS WORLD; ALL THE DAYS OF THY LIFE' IS TO ADD THE DAYS OF THE MESSIAH.
GEMARA. It has been taught: Ben Zoma said to the Sages: Will the Exodus from Egypt be mentioned in the days of the Messiah? Was it not long ago said: Therefore behold the days come, saith the Lord, that they shall no more say: As the Lord liveth that brought up the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt; but, As the Lord liveth that brought up and that led the seed of the house of Israel out of the north country and from all the countries whither I had driven them?35 They replied: This does not mean that the mention of the exodus from Egypt shall be obliterated, but that the [deliverance from] subjection to the other kingdoms shall take the first place and the exodus from Egypt shall become secondary. Similarly you read: Thy name shall not be called any more Jacob, but Israel shall be thy name.36
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