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Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Nedarim
The scholars propounded: What if one vows, 'Konam, if I taste wine a Jubilee':4 Is the fiftieth year [counted] as before the fiftieth or as after?5 Come and hear: For a conflict of R. Judah and the Rabbis has been taught: And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year:6 you must count it as the fiftieth year, but not as the fiftieth and as the first year [of the following jubilee].7 Hence they [the Sages] said: The Jubilee is not part of the [following] septennate. R. Judah maintained: The Jubilee is counted as part of the septennate. Said they to R. Judah, But Scripture saith, six years shalt thou sow thy field,8 whereas here there are only five!9 He replied: But on your view, Surely it is said, and it shall bring forth fruit for three years.'10 whereas here there are four!11 But it can be referred to other Sabbatical years; hence mine too12 must be thus explained.
'UNTIL PASSOVER', HE IS FORBIDDEN etc. Shall we say that R. Meir holds that a man does not place himself.
Nedarim 61bin a doubtful position, whilst R. Jose maintains that he does place himself in a doubtful position?1 But the following contradicts it: If a man has two groups of daughters by two wives, and he declares, 'I have given one of my elder daughters in betrothal,2 but do not know whether it was the eldest of the senior3 group or of the junior group, or the youngest of the senior group, who is older than the eldest of the junior group': they are all forbidden,4 except the youngest of the junior group:5 this is R. Meir's view. R. Jose said: They are all permitted except the eldest of the senior group.6 — Said R. Hanina b. Abdimi in Rab's name: The passage must be reversed.7 And it was taught [even so]: This is a general principle: That which has a fixed time, and one vows, until the turn [pene] thereof, — R. Meir said: It means, until it goes; R. Jose maintained: Until it arrives.
MISHNAH. [IF HE VOWS,] 'UNTIL THE HARVEST, 'UNTIL THE VINTAGE, OR, UNTIL THE OLIVE HARVEST,' HE IS FORBIDDEN (ONLY UNTIL IT ARRIVES. THIS IS A GENERAL RULE WHATEVER HAS A FIXED TIME AND ONE VOWS, 'UNTIL IT ARRIVES, HE IS FORBIDDEN UNTIL IT ARRIVES; IF HE DECLARES, 'UNTIL IT BE', HE IS FORBIDDEN UNTIL IT GOES. BUT WHATEVER HAS NO FIXED TIME, WHETHER ONE VOWS, 'UNTIL IT BE,' OR 'UNTIL IT ARRIVES,' HE IS FORBIDDEN ONLY UNTIL IT ARRIVES. [IF HE SAYS,] 'UNTIL THE SUMMER [HARVEST],'8 OR, 'UNTIL THE SUMMER [HARVEST] SHALL BE,' [HE IS FORBIDDEN] UNTIL PEOPLE BEGIN TO BRING [THE FIGS] HOME IN BASKETS;' UNTIL THE SUMMER [HARVEST] IS PAST,' [IT MEANS] UNTIL THE KNIVES9 ARE FOLDED UP [AND LAID AWAY].10
GEMARA. A tanna taught: The basket referred to is the basket of figs, not of grapes.11 It was taught: He who vows [abstinence] from summer fruits, is forbidden only figs. R. Simeon b. Gamaliel said: Grapes are include din figs.12 What is the reason of the first Tanna? He holds that figs are plucked off by hand, whilst grapes are not plucked off by hand;13 whereas R. Simeon b. Gamaliel maintains, Grapes too are plucked off by hand when quite ripe.14
UNTIL THE SUMMER [HARVEST] IS PAST,' [IT MEANS] UNTIL THE KNIVES ARE FOLDED UP [AND LAID AWAY]. A Tanna taught: Until most of the knives have been put away.
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