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Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Niddah
WHAT IS MEANT BY 'TASTELESS SPITTLE'. One taught:2 That of a man who tasted nothing since the previous evening. R. Papa intended to explain before Raba [that this bears the same meaning] as when one says that he had tasted nothing in the evening.3 But Raba4 pointed out to him: Does it say 'in the evening'?3 It only says, 'Since the previous evening',5 thus excluding only the case of one who got up early6 and ate.7 Rabbah b. Bar Hana citing R. Johanan stated: What is meant by tasteless spittle? [That of a person] who spent half a night in sleep.8 This then implies that the quality of spittle9 depends on sleep. But have we not learnt:10 If a man slept all day his is no tasteless spittle and if he was awake all night it is tasteless spittle?11 — There12 it is a case, where one was in a state of drowsiness.13 What state of drowsiness is hereby to be understood? — R. Ashi replied: Where a man is half asleep and half awake;14 when addressed he answers but is unable to give any rational reply, and when he is reminded of any thing he can recall it.
One taught: If a man rose up early in the morning and studied his lesson, his is no tasteless spittle.15 But for how long?16 — R. Judah b. Shila citing R. Ashi who had it from R. Eleazar replied: For a period during 'which17 can be uttered the greater part of one's usual talk in the course of three hours.
THE LIQUID OF CRUSHED BEANS? — PASTE MADE OF CRUSHED BEANS etc. May it be suggested that this18 provides support for Resh Lakish; for Resh Lakish said: There must be tasteless spittle with each of the substances? — It is possible that the heat of one's mouth suffices.19 Our Mishnah20 is not in agreement with R. Judah. For it was taught: R. Judah explained,21 Boiling liquid of crushed beans before ['ober] salt is put into it.22 What is the proof that the expression23 'ober' means 'before'? — R. Nahman b. Isaac replied: Since Scripture says, Then Ahimaaz ran by way of the plain, and overran [wa-ya'abor]24 the Cushite.25 Abaye replied, The proof comes from here: And he himself passed over ['abar]24 before them.26 And if you prefer I might reply that the proof comes from here: And their king is passed on [wa-ya'abor]24 before them, and the Lord before them.27
URINE? THIS REFERS TO SUCH AS HAS FERMENTED. One taught: What must be the duration of28 their fermentation? Three days. R. Johanan observed, All the standards of the Sages in respect of bloodstains need additional standards to define them:29 [Is the urine that] of a child or of an old man,30 of a man or of a woman,30 covered30 or uncovered, of the summer season30 or of the winter season?
ONE MUST SCOUR THE STAIN THREE TIMES. R. Jeremiah enquired: Does the forward and backward movement31 count as one or is it possible that it counts as two? Now what is the decision? — This stands undecided.32
IF THEY WERE NOT APPLIED IN THE PRESCRIBED ORDER. Our Rabbis taught: If the latter33 were applied before the former,34 one Baraitha teaches, 'The latter35 are counted36 and the former37 are not counted,'38 while another [Baraitha] teaches, 'The former are counted and the latter are not counted'!39 — Abaye replied: According to both statements the latter35 are counted, and the former40 are not; but 'former'41 refers to those that are42 first in the prescribed order43 though second in the process of application.
MISHNAH. FOR EVERY WOMAN THAT HAS A SETTLED PERIOD IT SUFFICES [TO RECKON HER PERIOD OF UNCLEANNESS FROM] HER SET TIME. AND THESE ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF SETTLED PERIODS: [IF THE WOMAN]44 YAWNS, SNEEZES, FEELS PAIN AT THE TOP OF45 HER STOMACH OR THE BOTTOM OF HER BOWELS, DISCHARGES,46 OR IS SEIZED BY A KIND OF SHIVERING, OR ANY OTHER SIMILAR SYMPTOMS.46 ANY WOMAN WHO ESTABLISHED FOR HERSELF [ONE OF THE SYMPTOMS]44 THREE TIMES MAY BE DEEMED TO HAVE47 A SETTLED PERIOD.
GEMARA. Have we not learnt once before, 'For any woman who has a settled period it suffices [to reckon her period of uncleanness from] her set time'?48 — There the reference is to settled periods [that are determined by the number] of days49 while here the reference is to settled periods [that are determined by conditions] of the body; as it was actually taught, 'The following are the symptoms of settled periods: If a woman yawns, sneezes, feels pain at the top of her stomach or the bottom of her bowels or discharges'. 'Discharges'! Is she not then50 constantly discharging?51 — 'Ulla son of R. Elai replied:
Niddah 63bThis is a case where she discharges unclean blood as a result of a discharge1 of clean blood.2
OR … A KIND OF SHIVERING etc. What was the expression, OR ANY OTHER SIMILAR SYMPTOMS, intended to include? — Rabbah b. 'Ullah replied: To include a woman who feels a heaviness in her head3 or a heaviness in her limbs, who shivers or belches. R. Huna b. Hiyya citing Samuel observed: Behold [the Sages] have ruled that 'for settled periods [that are determined by the number] of days two [occurrences are required],4 for settled periods [that are determined by the condition] of the body one occurrence suffices,5 for settled periods [that are determined by conditions] which the Sages did not enumerate three occurrences are required;6 But [I do not know] what the expression, 'for settled periods that are determined by conditions which the Sages did not enumerate intended to include? — R. Joseph replied: To include a woman who feels a heaviness in the head,3 a heaviness in her limbs, who shivers or belches. Said Abaye to him:7 What does he teach us thereby,8 seeing that this is actually a ruling in our Mishnah,9 Rabbah b. 'Ulla having thus10 explained it? — Rather, said Abaye, it8 was intended to include one who ate garlic and observed a discharge, one who ate onions and observed a discharge, and one who chewed pepper and observed a discharge. R. Joseph observed: I have not heard this tradition.11 Said Abaye to him: You yourself have told it to us, and it was in connection with the following that you told it to us:12 If a woman was in the habit of observing a discharge on the fifteenth day of the month and this was changed to the twentieth day, intercourse is forbidden to her on both days.13 If she observed a discharge on three consecutive months14 on the twentieth day, intercourse on the fifteenth becomes permitted15 and she establishes the twentieth day as her settled period: for no woman can establish for herself a settled period unless the discharge had appeared three times on the same date.16 And in connection with this you told us: Rab Judah citing Samuel stated, This is the view of R. Gamaliel son of Rabbi who cited it in the name of R. Simeon b. Gamaliel,17 but the Sages ruled: If she observed a discharge once18 she need not19 repeat it a second time and a third time. And when we asked you, 'Since you said, "She need not repeat it a second time" was there any need to state that she need not repeat it a third time'? you replied' She need not repeat it a second time in the case of settled periods [that are determined by the condition] of her body and she need not repeat it a third time in the case of settled periods [determined by the number] of days. But why did he not simply say, 'This is the view of R. Simeon b. Gamaliel'?17 — It is this that Samuel informed us: That R. Gamaliel the son of Rabbi holds the same view as R. Simeon b. Gamaliel.
MISHNAH. IF A WOMAN HAD THE HABIT OF OBSERVING HER MENSTRUAL DISCHARGES AT THE ONSET OF THE SYMPTOMS20 OF HER SETTLED PERIODS, ALL CLEAN THINGS21 THAT SHE HANDLED WHILE THE SYMPTOMS WERE IN PROGRESS22 ARE UNCLEAN; BUT IF SHE HAD THE HABIT OF OBSERVING THEM AT THE END OF THE SYMPTOMS, ALL CLEAN THINGS21 THAT SHE HANDLED WHILE THE SYMPTOMS LASTED22 REMAIN CLEAN. R. JOSE RULED: SETTLED PERIODS MAY ALSO BE DETERMINED BY DAYS AND HOURS.23 IF24 SHE HAD THE HABIT OF OBSERVING HER MENSTRUAL DISCHARGES AT SUNRISE SHE IS FORBIDDEN INTERCOURSE AT SUNRISE ONLY.25 R. JUDAH RULED: SHE26 IS PERMITTED IT DURING ALL THAT DAY.27
GEMARA. One taught: What28 did R. Jose mean by 'Settled periods may also be determined by days and hours'? If a woman had the habit of observing her discharge on the twentieth day of the month29 and at the sixth hour of the day,30 and the twentieth day arrived and she observed no discharge, she is forbidden intercourse during all the first six hours;31 so R. Judah. R. Jose, however, permits it until the beginning of the sixth hour32 but during the sixth hour she must take into consideration [the possibility of a discharge].33 If the sixth hour has passed and she observed no discharge, she is still forbidden intercourse all that day; so R. Judah, R. Jose, however, permits it from the time of the afternoon service34 onwards.
IF SHE HAD THE HABIT [etc.]. But was it not taught: R. Judah ruled, She35 is permitted intercourse all night?36 — This is no contradiction. The Baraitha deals with the case of37 one who had the habit of observing the discharge at the beginning of the day38 while the Mishnah deals with one who had the habit of observing the discharge at the end of the night.39
One [Baraitha] taught: R. Judah forbids intercourse before her settled period, and permits it after the period while another [Baraitha] taught: [R. Judah] forbids it after her settled period and permits it before the period. This,40 however, represents no difficulty, since the former is a case where she usually observes her discharge at the end of the night while the latter is a case where she usually observes it at the beginning of the day.41
Raba stated: The halachah is in agreement with R. Judah. But could Raba have said this, seeing that it was taught: Thus shall ye separate the children of Israel from their uncleanness;42 from this, R. Jeremiah43 observed, follows a warning to the children of Israel that they shall separate from their wives near their periods. And for how long? Raba44 replied: One 'onah.45 Now does not this mean: An additional 'onah?46 — No; the same 'onah. But then, what need is there for the two statements?47 — Both are required. For, if he had informed us of the former statement only, it might have been presumed that it applied only to the law relating to clean things but not to that relating to a woman's permissibility to her husband. Hence we were informed [of the latter statement]. And if [our information were to be derived] from the latter statement only it might have been presumed that near her settled period an additional 'onah is required, hence we were informed that only one 'onah is necessary.
MISHNAH. IF SHE WAS ACCUSTOMED TO OBSERVE A FLOW OF MENSTRUAL BLOOD ON THE FIFTEENTH DAY48 AND THIS WAS CHANGED49 TO THE TWENTIETH DAY,48 MARITAL INTERCOURSE IS FORBIDDEN ON BOTH DAYS.50 IF THIS WAS TWICE CHANGED TO THE TWENTIETH INTERCOURSE IS AGAIN FORBIDDEN ON BOTH DAYS.50 IF THIS WAS CHANGED THREE TIMES TO THE TWENTIETH DAY, INTERCOURSE IS NOW PERMITTED ON THE FIFTEENTH51 AND THE TWENTIETH IS ESTABLISHED AS HER SETTLED PERIOD. FOR A WOMAN MAY NOT REGARD HER MENSTRUAL PERIODS AS SETTLED UNLESS THE RECURRENCE HAS BEEN REGULAR THREE TIMES; NOR IS SHE RELEASED FROM THE RESTRICTIONS OF A SETTLED PERIOD UNLESS IT HAS VARIED52 THREE TIMES.
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