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Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Shabbath
All agree that if one prepares it [a meal-offering] as leaven after another has prepared it as leaven,1 he is culpable; because it is said, It shall not be baked leaven,2 it shall not be made leaven,3 If one castrates after another has castrated, he is culpable, for it is said, That which hath its stones bruised, or crushed, or broken, or cut away,4 [ye shall not offer unto the Lord; neither shall ye do thus in your land]:5 now, if one is guilty for cutting [them] away, how much more so for breaking them!6 But it is to teach7 that if one castrates after another, he is culpable!8 — Rather it refers to an old man.9 But R. Johanan said: It was those very [remedies]10 which restored me to my youth?11 — Rather the reference [here] is to a woman.12 But according to R. Johanan b. Beroka, who said: Concerning both [man and woman] it is said, And God blessed them: and God said unto them, Be fruitful and multiply,13 what can be said? — The reference [here] is to an old woman14 or to a barren woman.
MISHNAH. IF ONE'S TEETH PAIN HIM, HE MUST NOT SIP VINEGAR THROUGH THEM,15 BUT MAY DIP [HIS BREAD IN VINEGAR] IN THE USUAL MANNER,16 AND IF HE IS CURED, HE IS CURED. IF ONE'S LOINS PAIN HIM, HE MUST NOT RUB THEM WITH WINE OR VINEGAR, BUT HE MAY ANOINT THEM WITH OIL,17 YET NOT ROSE OIL.18 ROYAL CHILDREN MAY ANOINT THEIR WOUNDS WITH ROSE OIL, SINCE IT IS THEIR PRACTICE TO ANOINT THEMSELVES THUS ON WEEKDAYS. R. SIMEON SAID: ALL ISRAEL ARE ROYAL CHILDREN.
GEMARA. R. Aha the Long, i.e., R. Ahab. Papa, pointed out a contradiction to R. Abbahu. We learnt: IF ONE HAS TOOTHACHE, HE MUST NOT SIP VINEGAR ON THEM. Shall we say that vinegar is beneficial to the teeth, — but it is written, As vinegar to the teeth, and as smoke to the eyes?19 — There is no difficulty: the one refers to vinegar of fruit;20 the other to acid. Alternatively, both refer to acid: one means where there is a wound; the other, where there is no wound.21 If there is a wound it heals; if there is no wound it loosens [the teeth in the gums].
HE MUST NOT SIP VINEGAR THROUGH THEM. But it was taught, He must not sip and eject, yet he may sip and swallow? — Said Abaye, When we learnt our Mishnah we too learnt of sipping and ejecting. Raba said, You may even say [that it refers to] sipping and swallowing: the one holds good before the dipping, the other after the dipping.22 But let us say, Since it is permitted before the dipping, it is permitted after the dipping too,23 for we know that Raba accepts this argument.24 For Raba said: There is nothing which is permitted on the Sabbath and forbidden on the Day of Atonement:25 since it is permitted on the Sabbath, it is permitted on the Day of Atonement too? He retracted from the present statement.26 How do you know that he retracted from, this statement: perhaps he retracted from the other? — You cannot think so, For it was taught: All who are obliged to perform tebillah may do so in the normal way, both on the ninth of Ab and on the Day of Atonement.27
IF ONES LOINS PAIN HIM, etc. R. Abba b. Zabda said in Rab's name: The halachah is as R. Simeon. Shall we say that Rab holds with R. Simeon?28 Surely R. Simeon son of R. Hiyya said in Rab's name: The stopper of the brewing vat29
may not be forced into [the bung-hole] on a Festival!1 — There even R. Simeon agrees, For Abaye and Raba both maintain: R. Simeon agrees in the case of 'cut off his head but let him not die'.2 But R. Hiyya b. Ashi said in Rab's name: The halachah is as R. Judah,3 while R. Hanan b. Ammi said in Samuel's name: The halachah is as R. Simeon. Further, R. Hiyya b. Abin recited it without [intermediary] scholars:4 Rab said: The halachah is as R. Judah; while Samuel ruled: The halachah is as R. Simeon? — Rather said Raba, I and a lion of the company,5 viz., R. Hiyya b. Abin, explained it: [Rab said:] The halachah is as R. Simeon, but not on account of his view. What is meant by 'The halachah is as R. Simeon, but not on account of his view?' Shall we say, 'The halachah is as R. Simeon', that it is permitted; 'but not through his reason for R. Simeon holds [that] it heals,6 whereas Rab holds that it does not heal? Does then Rab hold that it does not heal? But surely, since he [the Tanna] states, ROYAL CHILDREN MAY ANOINT THEIR WOUNDS WITH ROSE OIL, it follows that [all agree] that it does heal? But 'the halachah is as R. Simeon', that it is permitted; 'but not through his reason': for whereas R. Simeon holds that in spite of its being rare it is permitted, Rab holds: Only if it is common [is it permitted], but not if it is rare,7 and in Rab's place rose oil was common.
MISHNAH. Now, THESE ARE THE KNOTS WHICH ENTAIL CULPABILITY:8 CAMEL-DRIVERS' KNOTS AND SAILORS' KNOTS. AND JUST AS ONE IS GUILTY FOR TYING THEM, SO IS HE GUILTY FOR UNTYING THEM. R. MEIR SAID: ANY KNOT WHICH ONE CAN UNTIE WITH ONE HAND ENTAILS NO GUILT.
GEMARA. What are CAMEL-DRIVERS' KNOTS AND SAILORS' KNOTS? Shall we say, the knot which is tied through the nose ring9 and the knot which is tied through the ship's ring,10 but these are non-permanent knots?11 Rather it means the knot of the nose ring itself and of the ship's ring itself.12
R. MEIR SAID: ANY KNOT, etc. R. Ahadbuy the brother of Mar Aha asked: What of a slip-knot13 on R. Meir's view: is R. Meir's reason because it can be untied with one hand, and this too can be untied;14 or perhaps R. Meir's reason is that it is not well-fastened,15 whereas this is well-fastened? The question stands over.
MISHNAH. YOU HAVE SOME KNOTS WHICH DO NOT ENTAIL GUILT LIKE FOR CAMEL-DRIVERS' KNOTS AND SAILORS' KNOTS.16 A WOMAN MAY TIE UP THE OPENING OF HER CHEMISE, THE RIBBONS OF HER HAIR-NET AND OF HER GIRDLE,17 THE LACES OF HER SHOES OR SANDALS, PITCHERS OF WINE AND OIL, AND THE MEAT POT.18 R. ELEAZAR B. JACOB SAID: ONE MAY TIE [A ROPE] IN FRONT OF AN ANIMAL,19 THAT IT SHOULD NOT GO OUT.
GEMARA. This is self-contradictory: you say, YOU HAVE SOME KNOTS WHICH DO NOT ENTAIL GUILT LIKE FOR CAMEL-DRIVERS' KNOTS AND SAILORS' KNOTS; thus there is indeed no guilt, but there is a prohibition. Then he [the Tanna] teaches: A WOMAN MAY TIE UP THE OPENING OF HER CHEMISE, [which means] even at the very outset? — This is what he says: YOU HAVE SOME KNOTS WHICH DO NOT ENTAIL GUILT LIKE FOR CAMEL-DRIVERS' KNOTS AND SAILORS' KNOTS, and which are they?
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