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Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Shabbath
Such as those of your father's house, he replied.1
R. Abba b. Kahana also said in R. Hanina's name: The litters2 of Rabbi's household may be handled on the Sabbath. R. Zera asked him: [Does that mean] those that can be moved with one hand, or [even] with two hands? Such as those of your father's house, replied he.
R. Abba b. Kahana also said: R. Hanina permitted Rabbis household to drink wine [carried]3 in gentile coaches4 [sealed] with one seal,5 and I do not know whether it is because he agrees with R. Eliezer6 or because of the [Gentile's] fear of the Nasi's household.7
MISHNAH. IF A GENTILE LIGHTS A LAMP, AN ISRAELITE MAY MAKE USE OF ITS LIGHT; BUT IF [HE DOES IT] FOR THE SAKE OF THE ISRAELITE, IT IS FORBIDDEN. IF HE DRAWS WATER8 TO GIVE HIS OWN ANIMAL, TO DRINK, AN ISRAELITE MAY WATER [HIS] AFTER HIM; BUT IF [HE DRAWS IT] FOR THE ISRAELITES SAKE, IT IS FORBIDDEN. IF A GENTILE MAKES A STAIRWAY TO DESCEND BY IT,9 AN ISRAELITE MAY DESCEND AFTER HIM; BUT IF ON THE ISRAELITES ACCOUNT, IT IS FORBIDDEN. IT ONCE HAPPENED THAT R. GAMALIEL AND THE ELDERS WERE TRAVELING IN A SHIP, WHEN A GENTILE MADE A STAIRWAY FOR GOING DOWN, AND R. GAMALIEL, AND THE ELDERS DESCENDED BY IT.
GEMARA. Now these are [all] necessary. For if we were informed [about] a lamp, that is because a lamp for one is a lamp for a hundred; but as for water, [I might say] let us forbid it,10 lest he come to increase [the quantity drawn] on the Israelite's account.11 What is the need of [the ruling about] a stairway?12 He tells us the story of R. Gamaliel and the elders.
Our Rabbis taught: if a Gentile gathers herbs,13 an Israelite may feed [his cattle therewith] after him, but if [he gathers] on the Israelite's account, it is forbidden. If he draws water to give his cattle to drink, an Israelite may water [his] after him, but if on the Israelite's account, it is forbidden. When is that? If he does not know him; but if he knows him it is forbidden. But that is not so? For R. Huna said in R. Hanina's name: A man may stand his cattle on grass on the Sabbath,14 but not on mukzeh15 on the Sabbath!16 — It means that he stands in front of it [the animal],17 and so it goes [there] and eats.
The Master said: 'When is that? If he does not know him; but if he knows him, it is forbidden.' But R. Gamaliel [is a case where] he knew him?18 — Said Abaye: It was not [made] in his presence.19 Raba said: You may even say that it was in his presence: 'a lamp for one is a lamp for a hundred.'20 An objection is raised: R. Gamaliel said to them, 'Since he did not make it in our presence, let us go down by it?' — Say: 'Since he made it, let us go down by it.'
Come and hear: If a city inhabited by Israelites and Gentiles contains baths where there is bathing on the Sabbath, if the majority are Gentiles, one [an Israelite] may bathe therein immediately;21 if the majority are Israelites, one must walt until hot water could be heated.22 — There, when they heat, they do so with a view to the majority.23
Come and hear: If a lamp is burning at a banqueting party:24 if the majority are Gentiles, one may make use of its light; if the majority are Israelites, it is forbidden; if half and half, it is forbidden?25 — There too, when they light it,
they do so with a view to the majority.
Samuel visited the house of Abin of Toran.1 A Gentile came and lit a lamp, [whereupon] Samuel turned his face away.2 — On seeing that he [the Gentile] had brought a document and was reading it, he observed, 'He has lit it for himself'; [sol he [too] [Samuel] turned his face to the lamp.
MISHNAH. ALL UTENSILS MAY3 BE HANDLED ON THE SABBATH AND THEIR DOORS4 WITH THEM, EVEN IF THEY ARE DETACHED, FOR THEY ARE NOT LIKE THE DOORS OF A HOUSE, WHICH ARE NOT OF MUKAN.5 A MAN MAY TAKE A HAMMER TO SPLIT NUTS, A CHOPPER TO CUT [A ROUND OF] PRESSED FIGS, A SAW FOR SAWING CHEESE, A SPADE TO SCOOP DRIED FIGS,6 A WINNOWING SHOVEL AND A PITCHFORK TO PLACE [FOOD] UPON IT FOR A CHILD, A REED OR A WHORL TO STICK [FOOD], A SMALL NEEDLE7 TO REMOVE A THORN, AND A SACK [NEEDLE] TO OPEN A DOOR THEREWITH.8
GEMARA. ALL UTENSILS MAY BE HANDLED, … EVEN IF THEY ARE DETACHED on the Sabbath,9 while it goes without saying [if detached] on a weekday;9 on the contrary, on the Sabbath they stand 'prepared' in virtue of their origin;10 [whereas if detached] on a weekday, they do not stand 'prepared' in virtue of their origin?11 Said Abaye, This is its meaning: ALL UTENSILS MAY BE HANDLED ON THE SABBATH, THEIR DOORS WITH THEM, EVEN IF THEY ARE DETACHED on a weekday, they may be handled on the Sabbath.
Our Rabbis taught: The door of a box, chest, or coffer12 may be removed, but not replaced; that of a hen-roost may neither be removed nor replaced. As for that of a hen-roost, it is well! he holds that since they [the hen-roosts] are attached to the ground, [the interdict of] building applies to the ground and that of demolishing applies to the ground;13 but as for that of a box, chest, or coffer, what is his opinion? If he holds, [The interdict of] building applies to utensils, then that of demolishing [too] applies to utensils; whilst if there is no [prohibition of] building in respect to utensils, there is no [prohibition of] demolishing in respect to utensils [either]?14 — Said Abaye: In truth he holds: There is [the prohibition of] building in the case of utensils, and there is [that of] demolishing in respect of utensils, but he means, Those that were removed [may not be replaced].15 Said Raba to him, There are two objections to this: one, since he teaches that they may be removed; and two, how [explain] 'but not replaced?' — Rather said Raba: He holds, [The interdict of] building does not apply to utensils, and the interdict of demolishing does not 'apply to utensils, yet it is a preventive measure, lest he fix it firmly.16
A MAN MAY TAKE A HAMMER, etc. Rab Judah said: [This means,] a nut hammer to split nuts therewith, but not a smith's [hammer]: he holds, An article whose function is a forbidden labour is forbidden [even] when required for itself.17 Said Rabbah to him: If so, when the second clause teaches, A WINNOWING SHOVEL AND A PITCH-FORK, TO PLACE [FOOD] UPON IT FOR A CHILD, are a winnowing shovel and a pitch-fork set aside specially for a child?18 Rather said Rabbah: [it means] a smith's hammer to split nuts therewith; he holds,
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