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Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Shabbath
An objection is raised: R. Simeon b. Gamaliel said: School children used to prepare their [Biblical] portions and read by lamplight?1 — There is no difficulty: I can answer either [that it means] the beginnings of the sections; or that children are different: since they are in awe of their teacher, they will not come to tilt it.
SIMILARLY … A ZAB MUST NOT DINE, [etc.]. It was taught, R. Simeon b. Eleazar said: Come and see how far purity has spread in Israel! For we did not learn, A clean man must not eat with an unclean woman, but A ZAB MUST NOT DINE TOGETHER WITH A ZABAH, AS IT MAY LEAD To SIN.2 Similarly, a zab, a parush3 may not dine with a zab, who is an 'am ha-arez,4 lest he cause him to associate with him. But what does it matter if he does cause him to associate with him? Rather say [thus]: lest he offer him unclean food to eat. Does then a zab who is a parush not eat unclean food?5 — Said Abaye: For fear lest he provide him with unfit food.6 Raba said: The majority of the 'amme ha-arez do render tithes, but [we fear] lest he associate with him and he provide him with unclean food in the days of his purity.7
The scholars propounded: May a niddah8 sleep together with her husband, she in her garment and he in his?9 — Said R. Joseph, Come and hear: A fowl may be served together with cheese at the [same] table, but not eaten [with it]: this is Beth Shammai's view. Beth Hillel rule: It may neither be served nor eaten [together]!10 — There it is different, because there are no [separate] minds.11 It is reasonable too that where there are [separate] minds it is different, because the second clause teaches, R. Simeon b. Gamaliel said: Two boarders12 eating at the same table, one may eat meat and the other cheese, and we have no fear.13 But was it not stated thereon, R. Hanin b. Ammi said in Samuel's name: This was taught only when they do not know each other;14 but if they do, they are forbidden? And here too they know each other!-How compare! There we have [separate] minds but no unusual feature;15 but here there are [separate] minds and an unusual feature.16
Others state, Come and hear: R. Simeon b. Gamaliel said: Two boarders may eat at the same table, one meat and the other cheese. And it was stated thereon, R. Hanin b. Ammi said in Samuel's name: This was taught only if they do not know each other, but if they do, it is forbidden; and these two know each other! — [No.] There we have [separate] minds but nothing unusual, whereas here there are [separate] minds and an unusual feature.
Come and hear: A ZAB MUST NOT DINE TOGETHER WITH A ZABAH, LEST IT LEAD TO SIN!17 — Here too there are [separate] minds but nothing unusual.
Come and hear: And hath not eaten upon the mountains, neither hath lifted up his eyes to the idols of the house of Israel, neither hath defiled his neighbour's wife, neither hath come near to a woman who is a niddah:18 thus a woman who is a niddah is assimilated to his neighbour's wife: just as his neighbour's wife, he in his garment and she in hers is forbidden, so if his wife is a niddah, he in his garment and she in hers is forbidden. This proves it. Now, this disagrees with R. Pedath. For R. Pedath said: The Torah interdicted only intimacy of incestuous coition, as it is said, None of you, shall approach to any that is near of kin to him, to uncover their nakedness.19
'Ulla, on his return from the college,20 used to kiss his sisters on their bosoms; others say, on their hands. But he is self-contradictory, for 'Ulla said, Even any form of intimacy is forbidden,21 because we say, 'Take a circuitous route, O nazirite, but do not approach the vineyard.'22
[It is taught in the] Tanna debe Eliyahu:23 It once happened that a certain scholar who had studied much Bible and Mishnah24 and had served scholars much,25 yet died in middle age. His wife took his tefillin and carried them about in the synagogues and schoolhouses and complained to them, It is written in the Torah, for that is thy life, and the length of thy days:26 my husband, who read [Bible], learned [Mishnah],
and served scholars much, why did he die in middle age? and no man could answer her. On one occasion I1 was a guest at her house,2 and she related the whole story to me. Said I to her, 'My daughter! how was he to thee in thy days of menstruation?' 'God forbid!' she rejoined; 'he did not touch me even with his little finger.' 'And how was he to thee in thy days of white [garments]?'3 'He ate with me, drank with me and slept with me in bodily contact, and it did not occur to him to do other.' Said I to her, 'Blessed be the Omnipresent for slaying him, that He did not condone on account of the Torah!4 For lo! the Torah hath said, And thou shalt not approach unto a woman as long as she is impure by her uncleanness.'5 When R. Dimi came,6 he said, It was a broad bed. In the West [Palestine] they said, R. Isaac b. Joseph said: An apron interposed between them.7
MISHNAH. AND THESE ARE OF THE HALACHOTH WHICH THEY STATED IN THE UPPER CHAMBER OF HANANIAH B. HEZEKIAH B. GARON, WHEN THEY WENT UP TO VISIT HIM. THEY TOOK A COUNT, AND BETH SHAMMAI OUTNUMBERED BETH HILLEL.; AND ON THAT DAY THEY ENACTED EIGHTEEN MEASURES.8
GEMARA. Abaye said to R. Joseph: Did we learn, THESE ARE or AND THESE ARE? Did we learn AND THESE ARE [viz,] those that we have stated [in the former Mishnah]; or did we learn THESE ARE [viz.,] those that are to be stated soon?9 — Come and hear: One may not search his garments by the light of a lamp, nor read by the light of a lamp; and these are of the halachoth stated in the upper chamber of Hananiah b. Hezekiah b. Garon. This proves that we learnt, AND THESE ARE;10 this proves it.
Our Rabbis taught: Who wrote Megillath Ta'anith?11 Said they, Hananiah b. Hezekiah and his companions, who cherished their troubles.12 R. Simeon b. Gamaliel observed: We too cherish our troubles, but what can we do? For if we come to write [them down], we are inadequate.13 Another reason is: a fool is not assailed.14 Another reason: the flesh of the dead does not feel the scalpel. But that is not so, for did not R. Isaac say, Worms are as painful to the dead as a needle in the flesh of the living, for it is said, But his flesh upon him hath pain, And his soul within him mourneth?15 Say: The dead flesh in a living person does not feel the scalpel.
Rab Judah said in Rab's name: In truth, that man, Hananiah son of Hezekiah by name, is to be remembered for blessing:16 but for him, the Book of Ezekiel would have been hidden,17 for its words contradicted the Torah.18 What did he do? Three hundred barrels of oil were taken up to him and he sat in an upper chamber and reconciled19 them.
AND ON THAT DAY THEY ENACTED EIGHTEEN MEASURES. What are the eighteen measures? — For we learnt: The following render terumah unfit:20 one who eats food of the first degree or the second degree, or who drinks unclean liquid;21 one who enters with head and the greater part of his body into drawn water;22 a clean person upon whose head and the greater part of his body there fell three logs23 of drawn water; a Book;24 one's hands;25 a tebul yom;26 and food or utensils which were defiled by a liquid.27
which Tanna [holds that] one who eats food of the first or of the second degree [merely] renders unfit
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