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Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Shabbath
why particularly a stone? the same applies to a denar! Why did Raba say: They learnt only a stone, but a denar is forbidden? — In the case of a stone, if it falls down the father will not come to fetch it, [but] with a denar, if it falls down the father will come to fetch it. It was taught in accordance with Raba: If one carries out his garments folded up and lying on his shoulder, or his sandals or his rings in his hands, he is liable; but if he was wearing them, he is not culpable. If one carries out a person with his garments' upon him, with his sandals on his feet and his rings on his hands,1 he is not culpable. Hence if he carried them as they are2 he would be culpable.3
A BASKET WITH A STONE IN IT: yet why? let the basket be [regarded as] a stand for a forbidden article?4 — Said Rabbah b. Bar Hanah in R. Johanan's name: We treat here of a basket full of produce.5 Then let the produce be thrown out, and let the stone be thrown out, and then we can collect [the produce] by hand?6 — As R. Elai said [elsewhere] in Rab's name: The reference is to fruit which becomes soiled, so here too [we treat] of fruit which becomes soiled.7 Then let one shake it [the basket] about?8 — Said R. Hiyya b. Ashi in Raba's name: We treat here of a broken basket, so that the stone itself becomes a wall for the basket.9
[UNCLEAN] TERUMAH MAY BE HANDLED, etc. R. Hisda said: They learnt [this] only where the clean [terumah] is underneath and the unclean is on top; but if the clean [terumah] is on top and the unclean underneath, one must take the clean and leave the unclean.10 But if the clean is underneath too, let him throw off [the unclean] and take it? — Said R. Elai in Rab's name: We treat of fruit which becomes soiled. An objection is raised: One may handle unclean terumah together with clean terumah or with hullin, whether the clean is on top and the unclean is below, or the unclean is on top and the clean is underneath; this refutes R. Hisda? — R. Hisda answers you: Our Mishnah [means that] it is required for itself;11 the Baraitha is where its place is required.12 What compels R. Hisda to interpret our Mishnah as meaning that it is required for itself?13 — Said Raba, Our Mishnah, by deduction, supports him. For the second clause14 states: If money is lying on a cushion, one shakes the cushion, and it falls off. Whereon Rabbah b. Bar Hanah said in R. Johanan's name: They learnt this only if it [the cushion] is required for itself; but if its place is required, one removes it while it [the money] is upon it. And since the second clause means that it is required for itself, the first clause too means that it is required for itself.
R. JUDAH SAID: ONE MAY ALSO REMOVE, etc. Yet why? surely he makes it fit?15 — R. Judah agrees with R. Eliezer, who maintains: The terumah lies as a [separate] entity.16 For we learnt: If a se'ah of terumah falls into less than a hundred,17 and thus they become a [forbidden] mixture, and then some of the mixture falls elsewhere,18 R. Eliezer said: It creates a [forbidden] mixture as though it were certain terumah,19 but the Sages maintain: The mixture creates a [forbidden] mixture only in proportion.20 [But] say that you know him [to rule thus] with stringency; do you know him [to rule thus] with lenience?21 — Rather [reply thus]: He [R. Judah] rules as R. Simeon, as we learnt: If a se'ah of terumah falls into a hundred,22 and one has no time to remove [it] until another falls in, it is [all] forbidden;23 but R. Simeon permits it.24 Yet how [does this follow]? Perhaps there they differ in this: viz., the first Tanna holds: Though they fell in consecutively it is as though they fell in simultaneously, so that each falls into fifty; whereas R. Simeon holds: The first is neutralized in the hundred, and this one is neutralized in a hundred and one?25 — Rather [reply thus]: He [R. Judah] rules as R. Simeon b. Eleazar. For it was taught, R. Simeon b. Eleazar said: One may cast his eyes at one side and eat from the other.26 Yet does he agree with him?
surely he disagrees? For it was taught, R. Judah said: One removes the admixture [of terumah in hullin] when one part [is neutralized] in a hundred and one parts;1 R. Simeon b. Eleazar said: One casts his eyes at one side and eats from the other?2 — R. Judah's [ruling] goes beyond R. Simeon b. Eleazar's.3
MISHNAH. IF A STONE IS ON THE MOUTH OF A CASK [OF WINE], ONE TILTS IT ON A SIDE AND IT FALLS OFF.4 IF IT [THE CASK] IS [STANDING] AMONG [OTHER] CASKS,5 HE LIFTS IT OUT, TILTS IT ON A SIDE, AND IT FALLS OFF. IF MONEY IS LYING ON A CUSHION, ONE SHAKES THE CUSHION, AND IT FALLS OFF. IF DIRT6 IS UPON IT, ONE WIPES IT OFF WITH A RAG;7 IF IT IS OF LEATHER,8 WATER IS POURED OVER IT UNTIL IT DISAPPEARS.
GEMARA. R. Huna said in Rab's name: They learnt this only where one forgot [it there], but if he placed [it there]. it [the cask] becomes a stand for a forbidden article.
IF IT IS [STANDING] AMONG [OTHER] CASKS, etc. Which Tanna holds that wherever there is something permitted and something forbidden, one must occupy oneself with what is permitted, not with what is forbidden?9 — Said Rabbah b. Bar Hanah in R. Johanan's name, It is R. Simeon b. Gamaliel. For we learnt: If one selects beans on a festival, Beth Shammai maintain: He must select the edible [beans] and eat them;10 whereas Beth Hillel rule: He may select in the usual way11 into his lap or into a plate. Now it was taught, R. Simeon b. Gamaliel said: When was this said? When the edible exceeds the non-edible;12 but if the non-edible exceeds the edible, all agree that he must select the edible. But here it is analogous to where the edible exceeds the non-edible?13 — Since he cannot take [the whole of] the wine, should he desire it, unless he lifts it up, it is analogous to where the non-edible exceeds the edible.14
IF IT IS [STANDING] AMONG THE CASKS, HE LIFTS IT OUT. It was taught, R. Jose said: If the cask is lying among a store [of casks], or if glassware is lying under it, he lifts it out elsewhere, tilts it on a side, so that it falls off, takes thereof what he requires, and replaces it.
IF MONEY IS LYING ON A CUSHION: R. Hiyya b. Ashi said: They learnt this only where one forgot [it there]; but if he placed [it there],15 it [the cushion] became a stand for a forbidden article. Rabbah b. Bar Hanah said: They learnt this only when it is required for itself; but if its place is required, one may remove it [the cushion] while they [the coins] are yet upon it. And thus did Hiyya b. Rab of Difti16 recite: They learnt this only when it is required for itself; but if its place is required, one may move it while they are yet upon it.
IF MONEY IS LYING ON A CUSHION, ONE SHAKES, etc. R. Oshaia said: If one forgets a purse in a courtyard, he places a loaf or a child thereon and moves it. R. Isaac said: If one forgets a brick in a courtyard, he places a loaf or a child thereon and moves it. R. Judah b. Shila said in R. Assi's name: They once forgot a saddlebag full of money in the street, and went and consulted R. Johanan and he told them, Place a loaf or a child thereon and move it.17 Mar Zutra said: The law is as all these rulings, where one forgets. R. Ashi said: Even if one forgets, this is still not [permitted], and they permitted [the expedient of] a loaf or a child only in connection with a corpse.18
Abaye placed a ladle on a pile of sheaves;19 Raba placed a knife on a young dove20 and handled it. Said R. Joseph: How keen are the rulings of children!21 assume that the Rabbis ruled thus when one forgets: but was it said [that it is permitted] at the very outset? Abaye retorted: But that I am a person of importance,22 would I need a ladle on sheaves: surely they are fit for reclining thereon.23 Raba retorted: But that I am a person of importance, would I need a knife on a young dove? surely it is fit for me as raw meat.24 Thus the reason is because it is fit as raw meat; but if it were not fit as raw meat it might not [be handled]:25 shall we say that Raba agrees with R. Judah?26 But surely Raba said to his servant, Roast me a duck27 and throw its entrails to a cat?28
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