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Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Shabbath
THE LID [OF THE POT] IS LIFTED, AND THEY [THE SHEARINGS] FALL OFF OF THEIR OWN ACCORD.1 Rather if stated, it was thus stated: Raba said: They learnt this only when one had not designated them for storing, but if he had, they may be handled. It was stated likewise: When Rabin came,2 he said in the name of R. Jacob in the name of R. Assi b. Saul in Rab's name: They learnt this only where one had not designated them for [constant]3 storing; but if he had designated them for [constant) storing, they may be handled. Rabina said: They [the Sages of the Mishnah] learnt in reference to the [merchant's] shelves.4 it was taught likewise: Wool shearings of the shelves may not be handled; but if a private individual prepared them for use, they may be handled.
Rabbah b. Bar Hanah recited before Rab: If one cuts down dried branches of a palm tree for fuel and then changes his mind, [intending them] for a seat, he must tie [them] together;5 R. Simeon b. Gamaliel said: He need not tie them together. He recited it and he stated it: The halachah is as R. Simeon b. Gamaliel.
It was stated: Rab said: He must tie [them] together; Samuel maintained: He must intend [to sit upon them]: while R. Assi ruled: If he sits upon them,6 though he had neither tied nor intended them [for sitting, it is well].7 As for Rab, it is well: he rules as the first Tanna: and Samuel too [is not refuted, for he] rules as R. Simeon b. Gamaliel. But according to whom does R. Assi rule? — He rules as the following Tanna. For it was taught: One may go out [into the street] with a wool tuft or a flake of Wool,8 if he had dipped them [in oil]9 and tied them with a cord. If he did not dip them [in oil] and tie them with a cord, he may not go out with them; yet if he had gone out with them for one moment10 before nightfall,11 even if he had not dipped or tied them with a cord, he may go out with them [on the Sabbath].12
R. Ashi said, We too have learnt [so]: One must not move straw [lying] upon a bed with his hand, yet he may move it with his body;13 but if it is fodder for animals, or a pillow or a sheet was upon it before nightfall,14 he may move it with his hand.15
And which Tanna disagrees with R. Simeon b. Gamaliel? R. Hanina b. Akiba. For when R. Dimi came,16 he said in the name of Ze'iri in R. Hanina's name: R. Hanina b. Akiba once went to a certain place and found dried branches of a palm tree cut down, and he said to his disciples, 'Go out and declare your intention,17 so that we may be able to sit upon them tomorrow'. And I do not know whether it was a house of feasting or a house of mourning.18 Since he says, '[I do not know] whether it was a house of feasting or a house of mourning', [it implies] only there, because they are occupied;19 but elsewhere it must be tied together; but if not, it is not [permitted].
Rab Judah said: A man may bring a sack full of earth [into the house] and use it for his general needs.20 Mar Zutra lectured in the name of Mar Zutra Rabbah: Providing that he allotted a certain corner to it.21 Said the students before R. Papa: With whom [does this agree]: R. Simeon b. Gamaliel? For if with the Rabbis, — an act is required!22 — R. Papa answered: You may even say, with the Rabbis. The Rabbis ruled that an act is required only where an act is possible,23 but not where it is impossible.24
Shall we say that this is disputed by Tannaim? Utensils may be cleaned25 with anything,26 save silver vessels with white earth.27 This [implies] that natron28 and sand are permitted. But surely it was taught, Natron and sand are forbidden? Surely they differ in this: one Master holds that an act is required,29 while the other Master holds that no act is required? No. All agree that no act is required, yet there is no difficulty: one is according to R. Judah, who maintains, What is unintentional is forbidden; the other is according to R. Simeon, who rules, What is unintentional is permitted.30 How have you explained the view that it is permitted? As agreeing with R. Simeon! Then consider the last clause: But one must not cleanse his hair with them.31 Rather if R. Simeon, surely he permits it? For we learnt:
A nazirite may cleanse [his hair]1 and part it,2 but he must not comb it.3 Rather both are according to R. Judah, yet two Tannaim differ as to R. Judah's view: one Tanna holds that in R. Judah's view they [natron and sand] smooth,4 while the other Tanna holds that in R. Judah's view they do not smooth. How have you explained them? As agreeing with R. Judah! Then consider the second clause: 'But the face, hands, and feet are permitted';5 but surely it removes the hair? — If you wish, I can answer that it refers to a child; alternatively, to a woman, another alternative, to a eunuch [by nature].6
Rab Judah said: Powdered brick is permitted.7 R. Joseph said: Poppy pomace [scented] with jasmine is permitted.8 Raba said: Crushed pepper is permitted. R. Shesheth said: Barda is permitted. What is barda? — Said R. Joseph: [A compound consisting of] a third aloes, a third myrtle, and a third violets. R. Nehemiah b. Joseph said: Providing that there is not a greater quantity of aloes, it is well.9
R. Shesheth was asked: Is it permissible to bruise olives on the Sabbath?10 He answered them: Who permitted it then on weekdays? (He holds [that it is forbidden] on account of the destruction of food).11 Shall we say that he disagrees with Samuel; for Samuel said: One may do whatever he desires with bread? — I will tell you: A loaf [crumbled] is not repulsive, but these are.
Amemar, Mar Zutra, and R. Ashi were sitting, when barda was brought before them.12 Amemar and R. Ashi washed [their hands therewith]; Mar Zutra did not. Said they to him, Do you not accept R. Shesheth's ruling that barda is permitted? R. Mordecai answered them: Exclude the Master [Mar Zutra], who does not hold it [permitted] even on weekdays. His view is as what was taught: One may scrape off the dirt scabs and wound scabs that are on his flesh because of the pain;13 [but] if in order to beautify himself, it is forbidden.14 And whose view do they adopt? — As what was taught: One must wash his face, hands, and feet daily in his Maker's honour, for it is said, The Lord hath made every thing for his own purpose.15
R. ELEAZAR B. AZARIAH SAID: THE BASKET IS TILTED ON ONE SIDE AND [THE FOOD] IS REMOVED, LEST ONE LIFT [THE LID OF THE POT], etc. R. Abba said in R. Hiyya b. Ashi's name: All agree that if the cavity becomes disordered,16 we may not replace [the pot].17 We learnt: BUT THE SAGES SAY: ONE MAY TAKE AND REPLACE [IT]. What are the circumstances? If the cavity is not disordered, the Rabbis [surely] say well?18 Hence it must mean even if the cavity becomes disordered!-No. In truth, it means that the cavity was not disordered, but here they differ as to whether we fear. One Master holds: We fear lest the cavity become disordered;19 while the other Master holds: We do not fear.
Samuel said: As regards the knife between the rows of bricks,23 — if one inserted it, withdrew it, and reinserted it,24 it is permitted; if not, it is forbidden. Mar Zutra-others state R. Ashi-said: Yet it is well [to insert a knife] between the branches of a reed hedge.25 R. Mordecai said to Raba, R. Kattina raised an objection: if one stores turnips or radishes under a vine, provided some of their leaves are uncovered, he need have no fear
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