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Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Shabbath
EWES MAY GO OUT TIED [KEBULOTH]. What is KEBULOTH? — With their tails tied downwards, to restrain the males from copulating with them. How is it implied that kabul3 denotes non-productively? — Because it is written, What cities are these which thou hast given me, my brother? And he called them the land of Cabul, unto this day.4 What is 'the land of Cabul'? — Said R. Huna: It contained inhabitants who were smothered [mekubbolin] with silver and gold. Said Raba to him, If so, is that why it is written, and they pleased him not?5 because they were smothered with silver and gold they pleased him not! — Even so, he replied; being wealthy and soft-living, they would do no work. R. Nahman b. Isaac said, It was a sandy region.6 and why was it called Cabul? Because the leg sinks into it up to the ankle, and people designate it an ankle-bound land which produces no fruit.
[AND COVERED] KEBUNOTH. What is KEBUNOTH? — It means that they [the sheep] are covered for the sake of the fine wool.7 As we learnt: [The hue of] a rising is like white wool.8 What is white wool? — Said R. Bibi b. Abaye: Like pure wool [from a sheep] which is covered from birth9 in order to produce fine wool.
AND GOATS MAY BE LED OUT [WITH THEIR UDDERS] TIED UP. It was stated: Rab said: The halachah is as R. Judah; while Samuel said: The halachah is as R. Jose. Others learn this controversy independently. Rab said: If it is in order to go dry, it is permitted. but if it is for milking it is forbidden; while Samuel said: Both are forbidden. Others learn it in reference to the following: Goats may go out [with their udders] tied up in order to go dry, but not for milking. On the authority of R. Judah b. Bathyra it was said: That is the halachah; but who can vouch10 which is for going dry and which is for milking? And since we cannot distinguish [between them], both are forbidden. Said Samuel, — others say. Rab Judah said in Samuel's name: The halachah is as R. Judah b. Bathyra. When Rabin came,11 he said in the name of R. Johanan: The halachah is as the first Tanna.12
MISHNAH. AND WHEREWITH MAY IT NOT GO OUT? A CAMEL MAY NOT GO OUT WITH A PAD [TIED TO ITS TAIL] OR 'AKUD OR RAGUL;13 AND SIMILARLY OTHER ANIMALS. ONE MUST NOT TIE CAMELS TOGETHER AND PULL [ONE OF THEM]. BUT HE MAY TAKE14 THE CORDS IN HIS HAND AND PULL [THEM]. PROVIDING HE DOES NOT TWINE THEM TOGETHER.
GEMARA. It was taught: A camel must not go out with a pad tied to its tail, but it may go out with a pad tied to its tail and its hump.15 Rabbah son of R. Huna said: A camel may be led out with a pad tied to its after-birth.16
OR 'AKUD OR RAGUL. Rab Judah said: 'AKUD means the tying of hand and foot17 together, like Isaac the son of Abraham; RAGUL means that the forefoot must not be bent back on to the shoulder and tied. An objection is raised: 'Akud refers to the two forefeet or the two hindfeet [tied together]; ragul means that the forefoot must not be bent back on to the shoulder and tied? — He interprets as the following Tanna. For it was taught: 'Akud means the tying together of the forefoot and the hindfoot, or of the two forefeet or the two hindfeet; ragul means that the forefoot must not be bent back on to the shoulder and tied. Yet it is still not the same: as for the first and the last clauses, it is well; but the middle one is difficult?18 — Rather [he maintains] as the following Tanna. For it was taught: 'Akud means the tying of hand and foot, like Isaac the son of Abraham; ragul means that the forefoot must not be bent back on to the shoulder and tied.
ONE MUST NOT TIE CAMELS TOGETHER. What is the reason? — Said R. Ashi: Because it looks as if he is going to the fair.
BUT HE MAY TAKE [etc.]. R. Ashi said: This was taught only in respect to Kil'ayim.19 Kil'ayim of what? Shall we say, kil'ayim of man?20 Surely we learnt: A man is permitted to plough and pull with all of them.21 But if it means kil'ayim of the cords,22 — surely we learnt: If one fastens [two pieces together] with one fastening,23 it is not a connection?24 — After all, it means kil'ayim of the cords, but this is its teaching: providing that he does not twine and knot [them together].25
Samuel said: Providing that a handbreadth of a cord does not hang out of his hand.26 But the School of R. Ishmael taught, Two handbreadths? — Said Abaye, Now that Samuel said one handbreadth, while the School of R. Ishmael taught two handbreadths, Samuel comes to inform us the halachah in actual practice.27
MISHNAH. AN ASS MAY NOT GO OUT WITH A CUSHION, WHEN IT IS NOT TIED TO IT, OR WITH A BELL, EVEN IF IT IS PLUGGED, OR WITH A LADDER[-SHAPED YOKE] AROUND ITS NECK, OR WITH A THONG AROUND ITS FOOT. FOWLS MAY NOT GO OUT WITH RIBBONS, OR WITH A STRAP ON THEIR LEGS; RAMS MAY NOT GO OUT WITH A WAGGONETTE UNDER THEIR TAILS,3 EWES MAY NOT GO OUT PROTECTED [HANUNOTH].4 OR A CALF WITH A GIMON,5 OR A COW WITH THE SKIN OF A HEDGEHOG,6 OR WITH THE STRAP BETWEEN ITS HORNS. R. ELEAZAR B. 'AZARIAH'S COW USED TO GO OUT WITH A THONG BETWEEN ITS HORNS, [BUT] NOT WITH THE CONSENT OF THE RABBIS.
OR WITH A BELL., EVEN IF IT IS PLUGGED UP. Because it looks like going to the fair.
OR WITH A STRAP ON THEIR LEGS. It is put on him [the ass] as a guard.11 FOWLS MAY NOT GO OUT WITH RIBBONS. Which are put on them, for a sign, that they should not be exchanged.
OR WITH A STRAP. Which is fastened on them to restrain them from breaking utensils.12
RAMS MAY NOT GO OUT WITH A WAGGONETTE. [Its purpose is] that their tails may not knock [against rocks, etc.].
EWES MAY NOT GO OUT PROTECTED [HANUNOTH]. R. Aha b. 'Ulla sat before R. Hisda, and he sat and said: When it is sheared, a compress is saturated13 in oil and placed on its forehead that it should not catch cold. Said R. Hisda to him: If so, you treat it like Mar 'Ukba!14 But R. Papa b. Samuel sat before R. Hisda,15 and he sat and said: When she kneels for lambing two oily compresses are made for her, and one is placed on her forehead and the other on her womb, that she may be warmed. Said R. Nahman to him, If so, you would treat her like Yaltha!16 But said R. Huna, there is a certain wood in the sea towns called hanun, whereof a chip is brought and placed in her nostril to make her sneeze, so that the worms in her head should fall out. If so, the same [is required] for males? — Since the males butt each other, they fall out in any case. Simeon the Nazirite said: A chip of the juniper tree [is placed in its nostril]. As for R. Huna, it is well: hence HANUNOTH is mentioned. But according to the Rabbis, what is the meaning of HANUNOTH? — That an act of kindness is done for it.17
NOR MAY A CALF GO OUT WITH A GIMON. What is the meaning of A CALF WITH A GIMON? — Said R. Huna: A little yoke.18 Where is it implied that 'GIMON' connotes bending?19 In the verse, Is it to bow down his head as a rush [ke-agmon]?20
NOR A COW WITH THE SKIN OF A HEDGEHOG. It is placed upon it to prevent hedgehogs21 from sucking it.
NOR WITH THE STRAP BETWEEN ITS HORNS. On Rab's view, whether as an ornament or as a protection, it is forbidden; on Samuel's view, as an ornament it is forbidden, as a protection it is permitted.22
R. ELEAZAR B. 'AZARIAH'S COW. Did he have [but] one cow? Surely Rab-others state, Rab Judah in Rab's name — said: The tithe of R. Eleazar b. 'Azariah's flocks amounted to thirteen thousand calves annually? — It was taught: This was not his,23 but a female neighbour of his; yet since he did not protest thereat, it was designated his.24
Rab and R. Hanina, R. Johanan and R. Habiba taught [the following] (In the whole of the Order Mo'ed25 whenever this pair26 occur some substitute R. Jonathan for R. Johanan)27 Whoever can forbid his household [to commit a sin] but does not, is seized28 for [the sins of] his household; [if he can forbid] his fellow citizens, he is seized for [the sins of] his fellow citizens; if the whole world, he is seized for [the sins of] the whole world. R. Papa observed, And the members of the Resh Galutha's [household]29 are seized for the whole world. Even as R. Hanina said, Why is it written, The Lord will enter into judgement with the elders of his people, and the princes thereof:30 if the princes sinned,
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