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Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Shabbath
R. Eleazar said: This does not agree with R. Simeon b. Eleazar. For it was taught: R. Simeon b. Eleazar stated a general rule: That which is not fit to put away, and such is not [generally] put away, yet it did become fit to a certain person1 and he did put it away; then another came and carried it out, the latter is rendered liable through the former's intention.
MISHNAH. HE WHO CARRIES OUT A COW'S MOUTHFUL OF STRAW, A CAMEL'S MOUTHFUL OF PEA-STALKS ['EZAH], A LAMB'S MOUTHFUL OF EARS OF CORN, A GOAT'S MOUTHFUL OF HERBS, MOIST GARLIC OR ONION LEAVES TO THE SIZE OF A DRIED FIG, [OR] A GOAT'S MOUTHFUL OF DRY [LEAVES], [IS CULPABLE].2 AND THEY DO NOT COMBINE WITH EACH OTHER,3 BECAUSE THEY ARE NOT ALIKE IN THEIR STANDARDS.
GEMARA. What is 'EZAH? — Said Rab Judah: The stalks of certain kinds of peas.
When R. Dimi came,4 he stated: If one carries out a cow's mouthful of straw for a camel, — R. Johanan maintained: He is culpable: R. Simeon b. Lakish said: He is not culpable. In the evening R. Johanan ruled thus, [but] in the morning he retracted. R. Joseph observed: He did well to retract, since it is not sufficient5 for a camel. Said Abaye to him: On the contrary, logic supports his original view, since it is sufficient for a cow.6 But when Rabin came,7 he said: If one carries out a cow's mouthful of straw for a camel, all agree that he is culpable. Where do they differ: if one carries out a cow's mouthful of pea-stalks for a cow,8 and the reverse was stated: R. Johanan maintained: He is not culpable; Resh Lakish maintained: He is culpable. R. Johanan maintained; He is not culpable: eating through pressing need is not designated eating. Resh Lakish maintained, He is culpable: eating through pressing need is designated eating.
A LAMB'S MOUTHFUL OF EARS OF CORN. But it was taught: As much as a dried fig? — Both standards are identical.
MOIST GARLIC OR ONION LEAVES TO THE SIZE OF A DRIED FIG, [OR] A GOAT'S MOUTHFUL OF DRY LEAVES. AND THEY DO NOT COMBINE WITH EACH OTHER, BECAUSE THEY ARE NOT ALIKE IN THEIR STANDARDS. R. Jose b. Hanina said: They do not combine for the more stringent, but they do combine for the more lenient [standard].9 Yet can anything combine when their standards are not alike?10 But surely we learnt: A garment11 three [handbreadths] square, a sack12 four square, a hide five square, and [reed] matting six square [are susceptible to uncleanness as midras].13 Now it was taught thereon: A garment, sacking, a hide, and matting combine with each other.14 And R. Simeon observed: What is the reason? Because they are liable to the uncleanness of sitting.15 Thus the reason is that they are liable to the uncleanness of sitting;16 but whatever is not liable to the uncleanness of sitting is not so? — Said Raba:
Here too they are fit for patterns.1
MISHNAH. HE WHO CARRIES OUT [HUMAN] FOODSTUFFS TO THE SIZE OF A DRIED FIG IS LIABLE, AND THEY COMBINE WITH EACH OTHER, BECAUSE THEY ARE EQUAL IN THEIR STANDARDS, EXCEPT THEIR SHELLS, KERNELS, STALKS, HUSKS2 AND COARSE BRAN.3 R. JUDAH SAID: EXCLUDING THE SHELLS OF LENTILS, BECAUSE THEY ARE BOILED TOGETHER WITH THEM.4
GEMARA. Now, do not husks and coarse bran combine [with the grain or flour]? But we learnt: Just over five quarters of flour are liable to hallah,5 [including] that itself [sc. the flour], the husks and the bran?6 — Said Abaye: That is because a poor man eats his bread [baked] of unsifted dough.7
R. JUDAH SAID: EXCLUDING THE SHELLS OF LENTILS, BECAUSE THEY ARE BOILED TOGETHER WITH THEM. Only lentils, but not beans? But it was taught, R. Judah said: Excluding the shells of beans and lentils. — There is no difficulty: The one refers to new [beans],8 the other to old. Why not old ones? Said R. Abbahti: Because they look like flies in the dish.9
MISHNAH. HE WHO CARRIES OUT [RAW] WINE, [THE STANDARD IS THAT IT BE] ENOUGH FOR THE MIXING OF A CUP;10 MILK, AS MUCH AS IS QUAFFED AT A TIME; HONEY, SUFFICIENT TO PLACE ON A SCAB;11 OIL, AS MUCH AS IS REQUIRED TO RUB IN A SMALL LIMB; WATER, ENOUGH FOR RUBBING COLLYRIUM;12 AND ALL OTHER LIQUIDS, [THE STANDARD IS] A REBI'ITH;13 AND ALL WASTE WATER,14 A REBI'ITH. R. SIMEON SAID: [THE STANDARD FOR] ALL THESE IS A REBI'ITH, ALL THESE MEASURES HAVING BEEN STATED ONLY IN RESPECT OF THOSE WHO PUT THEM AWAY.15
GEMARA. A Tanna taught: Enough for the mixing of a full-measured16 cup. And what is a full-measured cup? The cup of benediction.17 R. Nahman said in Rabbah b. Abbuha's name: The cup of benediction must contain a quarter of a rebi'ith [of raw wine], so that it may be mixed and amount to a rebi'ith. Said Raba, We too
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